Sleepio Research

Trial information

Espie CA, Kyle SD, Hames P, Cyhlarova E, Benzeval M. The daytime impact of DSM-5 Insomnia Disorder: comparative analysis of insomnia subtypes from the Great British Sleep Survey (n=11,129)


Thank you for your interest in our research.

We hope that this site will help you to understand the research methods used, and to get a sense of what the participant assessment experience was like.

Please note that all material is © Sleepio Limited 2010.

Recruitment and enrolment procedures

Potential participants visited this homepage, having heard of the survey through media stories and information supplements, through links from Boots or Mental Health Foundation websites, or by word of mouth.

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  • GBSS Front Page
    The Great British Sleep Survey homepage at the point of recruitment.

General format and content of the GBSS

The Great British Sleep Survey (GBSS) covered personal demographics, sleep pattern and sleep quality, daytime functioning, screening for other sleep disorders, and physical and mental health status. Analysis permitted identification of possible insomnia disorder against DSM-5 criteria. Here is a sample page.

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  • GBSS Question Page

Screening for other sleep disorders

An algorithm computed possible sleep disorder (other than insomnia) when the lead question plus any additional supplementary question was scored positively. An illustration is provided here and for ease of inspection, this measure is presented in full below.

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  • GBSS Other sleep disorders Screening Page

  1. Narcolepsy

    1. Do you sometimes fall asleep in the daytime completely without warning?
    2. Is it literally impossible to resist 'sleep attacks' during the day?
    3. Do you have collapses or extreme muscle weakness triggered by extreme emotion?
    4. Do you have visual hallucinations, either just as you fall asleep or when you wake in the morning?
    5. Are you paralyzed and unable to move when you wake up from your sleep?
    [Possible narcolepsy: 1a = "TRUE" AND (1b OR 1c OR 1d OR 1e = "TRUE")]
  2. Sleep breathing disorder

    1. Are you a very heavy snorer?
    2. Does your partner say that you sometimes stop breathing?
    3. Do you often wake up gasping for a breath?
    4. Are you often excessively sleepy during the day or fall asleep without wanting to?
    [Possible sleep breathing disorder: 2a = "TRUE" AND (2b OR 2c OR 2d = "TRUE")]
  3. PLMS/ RLS

    1. Do your legs often twitch or jerk or can't keep still in bed?
    2. Is it very difficult to get to sleep because of repeated muscle jerks?
    3. Do you frequently wake from sleep with sudden jerky movements or with a compulsion to move your legs?
    4. Do you simply have to get out of bed and pace around to get rid of these feelings?
    [Possible PLMS/ RLS: 3a = "TRUE" AND (3b OR 3c OR 3d = "TRUE")]
  4. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

    1. Do you tend to sleep well but just at the "wrong times"?
    2. Can you sleep well enough, but only if you stay up very late?
    3. Are you in a very sound sleep at normal waking time and could sleep on for hours more?
    4. Can you sleep well enough, but only if you go to bed very early?
    5. Do you wake very early, bright and alert and no longer sleepy?
    [Possible CRSD: 4a = "TRUE" AND EITHER (4b AND 4c = "TRUE") OR (4d AND 4e = "TRUE")]
  5. Parasomnia

    1. Do you have unusual behaviors associated with your sleep that trouble you or that are dangerous?
    2. Do you sleepwalk frequently and run the risk of injuring yourself or others?
    3. Do you have frequent night terrors when you are extremely distressed but not properly awake?
    4. Do you act out your dreams and risk injuring yourself or others?
    5. Do you have terrible recurring nightmares?
    [Possible parasomnia: 5a = "TRUE" AND EITHER (5b OR 5c OR 5d OR 5e= "TRUE")]

Behavioral sleep advice

An important incentive for taking part in the GBSS was that it provided a tailored report on the person's sleep, upon completion of the survey. A sample is provided here.

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  • GBSS Report Page
    The online participant consent form.

The GBSS now

We are continuously trying to improve the GBSS. The current version can be found at

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